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History of Printed Circuit Boards

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Printed circuit boards are pieces of modern technology that are often taken for granted. Point-to-point construction or non-automated construction of electronic circuits was the  method widely used before and a few years after the invention of printed circuits. Wire wrapping and turret boards were used for short production runs and construction of prototype equipment with minimal electronic parts. Although not as mass produced as modern circuit boards, these methods are still sparingly used to this day.

Printed circuit boards are in fact aptly referred to as motherboards since they are used to support and connect circuitry in nearly all but the most basic electronic devices. However despite the indispensable innovation and convenience that these devices provide us with today, it is fascinating to note that these technological marvels are actually over a hundred years in the making.

As early as the 20th century, development methods that are used in modern printed circuit boards were already being refined by past inventors and innovators.

These experiments included the use of layered foil conductors, plated conductors, etching methods, flame- spraying metal, etc. Thomas Edison was only one of the many notable historical figures who were already creating experimental prototypes of present-day mother boards.As a result, the development of the many components of the printed circuit cannot be credited to one person alone as the process actually occurred over a number of years and over a number of continents. Nonetheless, it was Paul Eisler, an Austrian Engineer, who was credited to have first used the functional printed circuit as an important component in a radio set.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

Following its creation, technologies of circuit boards were extensively used by the United States of America during World War II. Anti-aircraft proximity fuses needed to be made on a large scale and this required the mass production of an electronic circuit that could withstand the force of being fired from a gun.

Mr. Harry W. Rubinstein headed the team which devised the technique of screen-printing metallic paint and carbon material on ceramic plates.

Tubes and other components that could not be painted on were soldered in place. However, despite the large quantity of circuits produced, it was only after the war that they were made available to the public for commercial use. Furthermore, it was only subsequent to more developments regarding the assembly of the printed circuit that they became standard components in nearly all electronic consumer devices.

The previous assembly method called trough-hole construction required passing wire leads through the holes of each electronic component before they could be soldered to the printed circuit board. This time-consuming practice was soon replaced by the Auto-Sembly process where dip soldering component leads made large scale production much faster and more efficient. Today, a wave-soldering machine is used in order to automatically solder the separate parts to the board.

As demand for consumer electronic goods increased, it was deemed an economic necessity for the motherboard to support the development of peripheral computer components in the 1980s.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

The minimum requirement for the printed circuit boards of personal computers was to capably sustain a number of low-speed secondary components including the keyboard, mouse, etc.Other furtherm innovations in computer technology occurred in such rapid succession during this time period as well. In fact by the late 1990s, a more advanced video and audio range as well as networking capabilities could already be maintained by the motherboard alone.

Many of the past and particularly the most modern advances in their development have made motherboards nearly impervious to wear and tear from average use. Even so,it is important to remember that while these electronic circuits were designed to withstand strong impacts, constant abuse and improper maintenance of your printed circuit boards will definitely result in compromising their lifespan.

Author Bio:

The Auto-Sembly process where dip soldering component leads made large scale production much faster and more efficient. Today, a wave-soldering machine is used in order to automatically solder the separate parts to the printed circuit board.

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Types of Motivational Speakers

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A  is someone who talks about something inspirational to a group of people. These kind of speakers share their own experiences and expertise to an audience. Usually they are invited in schools, career seminars, community centers and different companies. There are several types of motivational speakers such as, personal development, business, youth mentor and community.

Personal development

Motivation speakers of this type talks about topics such as personality development, work and family balance and spiritual development. Motivational speakers discussing issues on personal development share their own experiences of difficult situations and misfortune to their achievement of success.

Motivational Speaker
They practically snare this to give hope to every individual. Instead of directly talking about life lessons, these speakers would rather let their audience pick and learn lessons on their own. The motivational speaker let their listeners be able to apply it in their own lives. After listening, motivated listeners should be able to take their own actions and find new outlook in life.

Business

Business related speakers are often invited to talk in a company. Audiences were comprised of front line personnel, business teams, executive directors and all other staffs. Usually, speakers in this kind are those who are known to have expertise and several experiences in the kind of field that they are talking about. They share their different experiences and how the audience could attain success in the same kind of business. The motivational speaker also reminds the audience of their goals.

The speaker also leads and unites the members of the company. For those who are starting with the business, the speaker’s stories and shared experiences give them hope that through hard work and perseverance, their ranking in the company will surely improve. Proper attitude and enthusiasm are usually shared by the motivational speaker to shape every employee’s perspective towards reaching success in their chosen company or business.

Youth Mentor

The audience for this kind of speaker is generally comprised of young people. These people may be found in schools, community centers, churches or other events and locations. This kind of motivational speaker generally addresses the young generations’ aim to have a healthy ambition, success in life and become an inspiration or model for the youth in the future.

Topics such as benefits of studying hard, explanations on why they should take school seriously, the process of finding their passion or calling in life, developing morality and proper way of interacting with others are just some of the things discussed by the motivational speaker for the youth, the speaker serves as a guide and direction for children and teenager listeners. The words from the motivational speaker help them avoid or overcome having bad decisions, irresponsible choices and lack of motivation.

Community

MotivationalDiscussing important social and community issues are among the topics discussed by community motivational speakers. Given specific topic, the motivational speaker shares experiences and campaigns he or she has done in another community, the words may serve as guide to the listeners on how to deal and make plan of actions on a specific issue. Usually the audience get involved in planning as the speaker direct their actions and decisions. Speaking about social and community issues can be an exchange of ideas and suggestions between the speaker and audience. This talk inspires listeners to achieve better goals for their community.

Being a motivational speaker does not simply involve talking about experiences in front of many people. Aside from speaking, motivational speakers are also instructing, giving lectures off the circuit and writing. Some speakers also teach as they offer prepackaged courses or online classes. Remember that they have expertise about their field and learning directly from them offers a lot of benefits. Lecturing off the circuit may be through video and audio recording of talks. In this way, more audience will be reached without going far. Writing is also a way to reach many people. Many motivational speakers make their own book or write articles in newspaper columns and magazines.

 

Author Bio
Many companies and organizations have turned to motivational speakers to help them sustain their employees and members passion towards their work, also visit motivational-speaker-success.
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Beginners’ Golf Iron Sets: The Right Golf Gear Can Pay-Off At Tee-Off July 22, 2016

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Golf Equipment setIf a foray through the fairways is in your immediate sights, it is best to survey and sample the right type of golf iron sets especially if you are joining the swing club for the first time. While you may have set aside enough to buy you what any PGA pro would kill to get his hands on, it is never a good thing to buy this type of golf equipment just yet. There is a good chance that this equipment could prove unsuitable and may just handicap your game before you even make your first drive. It is only wise to be thorough and cost-conscious in selecting your first set of golf equipment. www.rockbottomgolf.com are provide the best option of golf equipment.

Your best shot is to get wise advice from those who have spent serious time burning both skin and hands on the course in helping you choose the right gear for you.

Take a look at these simple tips before you set out in search for golf iron sets:

For starters, ask your golfer friends or colleagues if they could let you try their golf iron sets right there on the greens. This should give you a feel of what kind of clubs fit your grip to a T. If you know of any professional personally, it would be good to add to your notes whatever other pointers he might have for your starter kit. You also don’t need to fork out money for a pricey video instructional that used to be solely on DVDs. YouTube offers a wealth of information from both pros and outstanding amateurs.

It is also unnecessary to purchase the entire bundle –

Standard beginners’ golf iron sets usually consist of a half set of clubs that are custom made for your level. Most half sets consist of a four iron, a six iron, an eight iron, a pitching wedge, and a sand iron. It also includes a three wood, a five wood, and a putter. That’s a total of eight pieces in your set. Irons that are not usually easy for beginners to use like the two, three, and four irons are not included in the set.

These half sets make it easy for beginners to choose which club to use. These clubs are also best for helping you improve your swing without spending the full price for a complete set just yet. When you have a good grip on your swing, you can already choose to expand your set with more clubs or trade your half set in for a pro set.

If the store from which you’re making your purchase happens to have an indoor driving range, give those clubs a few swings before finalizing the sale. While it may be cheaper to purchase your golf equipment online, you may not be able to return them if the clubs prove unsuitable for you.

When it comes to shafts, graphite is the recommended material for beginner golfers. They come at a more expensive price than steel shafts, but they are lightweight enough to help you swing the club faster.

Golf EquipmentExpensive models may just put a damper on your mood especially when you realize that golf is not the sport for you. If you do not know of anyone who is ready to “donate” their golf sets to you, your next bet is to scour the net for second-hand golf equipment. If you already have a good idea of what clubs best suit you, then it’s easier to make an educated guess if the used golf equipment you plan to purchase is still at par on the course. Make sure that the grips on the clubs are in good condition.

You can pay to have this easy job done for you. Just make sure that the new grips are the same size as the ones you plan to replace. Now, you don’t have to get all blue on the face when you step on the greens to make your first putt. Having the right golf equipment may not necessarily score you a hole-in-one just yet, but knowing what type of drivers to look for certainly helps in eventually getting your game in full swing.

 

The Anatomy of Golf Clubs

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Golf ClubsGolf, being one of the sports included in the Olympics, is widely known throughout the world. It may not be as popular as basketball, volleyball, swimming, and football, but it surely requires equal skills as other athletic activities. For individuals who prefer more passive sports than physically draining ones, golf may be the perfect choice.

For beginners, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the basics of golf. Before you even start playing, it is important to know the equipment. When playing golf, you would not be kicking the ball towards the hole. Instead, you would be driving it using golf clubs. These are sticks with heads, often made of wood, metal (or a hybrid of both), that players use to hit the ball in the direction of the cup. Rockbottomgolf should help you to learn several things about golf clubs.

It is good to acquaint yourself with the parts that make up the club. Knowing the different parts of a club will help you determine what build, design, and style fits your needs.

A club has five major parts

Golf

One is the grip, which is where players place their hands on to hold the club. You could choose between different designs of grips including training, ribbed, full-corded, and half corded. Training grips are ideal for beginners as they shaped to fit the hands of the player. This helps to properly position the hands. Ribbed grips have the same benefit but with a very minor difference. The bumpy surface at the back of the grip aids in the proper positioning of the fingers. Full-corded grips are weaved in such a way that your hands would not slip during a swing.

Serious golfers could use full-corded grips, as this type of grip can be very rough. If you are hesitant to use full-corded grips, you can always choose to work with half-corded ones. With the weave in one half and soft rubber on the other, half-corded grips deliver the same advantage as full-corded ones while protecting the ungloved part of your hand. The best way to choose is to know what is most comfortable for you in order to perform well.

The shaft allows you to command the entire golf club, as the length becomes an extension of your arm. Shafts are commonly made of steel or graphite. One difference of these two materials is that steel is heavier than graphite. It is beneficial for the golfer because it provides more accuracy when hitting the ball. For beginners, it is perfect to use graphite shafts as it is light-weight and lessens the strength of the impact as it club hits the ball.
Hosel and ferrule hold the club head and shaft together. They are essential that these two fit properly with the shaft. Loose fit of these two, might cause the club head to fly off the shaft during a swing. The lighter the weight of these two, the lower the center of gravity of the club head. This provides better performance for the whole club.

Golf-Clubs
The most important part of golf clubs are the club heads. Without it, the player would not be able to hit the ball. There are several parts of a club head: the hosel, face, sole, and the back. The face of the club head is the side that hits the ball, and its opposite side is the back. The part that aids in the footing of the club is the sole. The club head can be made of iron or wood.

Now that you know the different parts of golf clubs, you will be able to choose which type of parts will be advantageous to you.